“Mathesis universalis”/ Universal Science/ Holistic theory
Retaking the initial proposal of DESCARTES (1596 – 1650), LEIBNIZ (1646 – 1716) was 300 years ahead of his time proposing the Universal Science (=”Mathesis universalis”) and the “Characteristica universalis” (see the Theory of Knowledge below). For example, the intended “Unification of 4 forces”, or the integration of the confronted branches of physics (Quantum, Relativity, QED, …), it’s a little part of it.
Although he introduced the binary positional system (the basis of today’s computers), the lack information knowledge at that time limited his genius. Conceiving “Universal science” is only possible with symbolic systems of information. And it begins with the study of intrinsic Semiology and the intrinsic Semantics that characterizes each information system.
Not many years ago BERTALANFFY (1901-1972) tried it with his “General System Theory”, but with an exclusively material, physical-biological perspective. Therefore, he had no chance of getting it (BERTALANFFY is prior to the emergence of information, and even the importance of genetic information, which we will see).
LEIBNIZ would have needed the knowledge of these “Information Systems” (genetic, psyche and computer science), that would not be available until !another 200 years! Are detailed below.
SUTTON (1877 – 1916), at the beginning of the twentieth century (1902), he proposed the role of DNA in the transmission of hereditary characteristics. But genetics lost half a century because the geneticists took these 50 years to accept this evidence. So, in the middle of the XX century science had to accept that life phenomena were controlled by information, Genetic information in this case, codified directly on the basis molecular material sequences of DNA. The symbolic basis of this language are the “Codons” which are ordered and structured to control biological processes. These symbolic systems represent them by (+M +S).
But 50 years before, at the end of the XIX century, !more than 100 years ago!, FREUD (1856-1939) introduced the symbolic system of information of the psyche, which regulate the prolific human behaviour. Without even knowing the genetics, he described even more complex and powerful information systems. Unlike the DNA that we cited above what is of material basis, the basic support of psychic information is not directly material, but differently, the basic support are informational-virtual signals and symbols of unknown coding yet. Undoubtedly, these signals and symbols circulate through the nervous system, but the material support is not direct. I insist, the direct support are the signals/ symbols, which adds very powerful and important properties (versatility, hiper-complexation, self-applications, methodological transfers, …), not possible in the information systems directly supported in material elements (genetics, …). This is especially important for understanding the “Underlying information of physics” (the “sub-quantum” level required by BELL) that I explain later.
More in particular, human knowledge, one of the most prominent specific faculties of the psyche, has been shown (C. UDINA, 1996, “Intrinsic and exact conceptual system”) to be perfectly represented and described on the basis of elementary information, the cognitive triads formed by two related concepts (aRb, where “a” and “b” are Concepts, and “R” a Relation). For example: “A Canyon is the Result of Erosion”.
With which, through theirs groupings and structuring result all form of knowledge, however complex and profound it may be. Thus, with algebraic and geometric criteria applied to semiology and semantics, even the “Characteristica universalis” proposed by LEIBNIZ can be constructed, making an “Algebraic extension” of the accuracy of numbers to all concepts, something that was thought impossible . See in this same Web: (https://www.sistemaconceptual.org/teoria-del-conocimiento/) or “Bases matemáticas del SC…“, both in Spanish-Castillian.
Computing, symbolic information systems that are based on signals that travel through hardware materials (note the analogy with the psyche), have revolutionized civilization by allowing technologies (communication, ….) and automatization (the poorly named artificial intelligence, …), absolutely unthinkable some 50 years ago.
It is clear that the biological, psychic, and cognitive dynamics cannot be explained without an information system that controls them. As all cooking recipe, what we call “processes”, are in reality only intermediate elemental stages, that always progress (and/ or are described by mankind) by some kind of informational or virtual expression. Reciprocally information systems allow mankind to automatize or simulate any dynamic. But, we are not conscious of this, because as adults, we are accustomed to using “Processes” or “Phenomena” without realizing what are elaborated concepts (that is, virtual in nature, and not directly real/ sensitive in the sense that they are not based on reality, but rather based in previous virtual abstractions). For this reason, these two concepts are only understood by the child after 4 years old, how is clinically proven (IMIPAE, 1986). Any “Process” or “Phenomenon” necessarily implies virtual information, either intrinsic-underlying, or descriptive for mankind. I insist, the only strictly real are the intermediate states.
Also in the middle of the last century, 1964, John BELL (1928 – 1990, not Alexander G. BELL of the telephone) raised (by its theorem and its inequalities that resolve the “Paradox EPR”) the need for an unknown “sub-quantum level”. Shortly after and progressively (CLAUSER, ASPECT, GISIN, ZEILINGER, …) have confirmed with the experiments of “Entanglement” the existence of an exchange of information that eludes the material characteristics hitherto known (giving way to the instantaneity, the delocalization, … that contradict the hypothesis of Relativity). There are no hidden variables, simply that the information is neither material nor tangible.
More recently, in a surprising convergence of quantum and computer phenomena, in the physical Particles have recently discovered exceptional information processing capabilities (superposition and quantum computing) that the physicists want to apply. Has such exceptional processing capacity for physical particles existed for 14 billion years without being used to date? It is unquestionable that such information processing already existed from its inception, and can only be justified by the calculation of interactions with the other particles, to meet the strict intrinsic laws of physics.
So, as we will see in Physics and Information, physical phenomena also have underlying information and not just descriptive information by man. Underlying information supported in symbolic system, based necessarily in informational-virtual signals and symbols, analogous to computer science or the psyche. These symbolic systems represent them by (-M +S).
Universal science is not a superposition of sciences, nor a pluridisciplinarity. It is a higher level of science that has as elements to all sciences, with its own methodology applicable to all of them (the already mentioned intrinsic Semiology and Semantics, the processes of Transfer of information and methodological elements, etc., …).
As a example of universal science, through the transfer processes of information and of methodological elements between different systems —basic and repeated phenomena but still ignored by science— You can build a “Holistic Theory” that provides, in addition, an evolutionary link between the different domains studied by science:
– from the information underlying the physics, was derived the information that governs life (genetic, immunological, …), and from this
– was derived the psychological information that governs human behavior (see “The origin of life” in the sub-menu “Life and Information“).
Such progression has motivated the new structure of this Web.
With a “Mathesis universalis” that to the traditional non-symbolic material systems (+ M, -S) integrates the study of the two types of information systems, the (+ M, + S) and (-M, + S), you can get a “Holistic theory” that integrates and generalizes all the specific theories of the different specific sciences. The beginning of this exposition is another of the purposes of this website.
There are no isolated/ closed phenomena, some are derived from others through transfers of underlying information, which is the evolutionary nexus. Thus, the sciences are not isolated/ closed either. The information makes possible its integration into one, the universal Science, the “Mathesis universalis” of LEIBNIZ, advertised earlier in the “Tree of Wisdom/ Arbre de la saviesa” (1 page, in Catalan language) by Ramon LLULL (1232-1316). Fewer still there are sciences “invented” by the man (as it tried the “mathematical Formalism”, disassembled by GÖDEL). We should be more humble, less anthropocentric …: our knowledge results from “recycling” our intuitions, which are fed by transfers from our internal processes (see “¿Qué es la Inteligencia?” 36 pages in Castillian/ Spanish).
In the same way that in 2015 I was suggested to make a compilation of the mathematical aspects of the Conceptual System (which originated the document “Bases matemáticas…” [=”Mathematical Bases …”, 82 pages in Spanish castillian]), I has not yet done the same with the elements of the “Mathesis universalis”/ Science universal. The basic concepts of them they are distributed in various documents (some of 1996, in language catalan, listed in the sub-menu “Theory of Knowledge“, in “WordStar” format, so they have not yet been able to be migrated to the current formats that allow pdf’s,). At the moment you can find some elements of the “Mathesis universalis”/ Universal Science in documents translated into English:
– “The ‘miracle’ of a 23 weeks very premature newborn: matter or information?“, 2010, 32 pages, English version of Núria PARERA i PERA). A testimony of an exemplary mother, maximum exponent of the “Maternal instinct”. What is a miracle for medicine because it can not be understood, is easily explained from the perspective of the underlying information systems. In advance to there future empirical discovery it exposes of the existence of “Metadata” in genetic information, a feature that is still unknown by geneticists.
– “The Holistic theory (English summary)” (2010, partial exposition pending revision and update, 17 pages). It begins explaining the reiteration of natural phenomena of the utmost importance and in different areas (physics, genetics, cognition, …) that in all cases are represented by the algebraic Duality and the “Star” Operator of the differential Geometry, which surprisingly still ignores science; the Operator Star is a fundamental element of the “Mathesis universalis”.
Other documents, some in Catalan and others in Castillian/ Spanish are not translated into English. They can be seen in the sub-menu “Mathesis universalis [CAST/ ESP]” (in Castillian/ Spanish).
Collaboration is suggested for the translation into English of the following important document (45 000 words; contact: firstname.lastname@example.org):
– “What is Consciousness?” (“Què és la Conscienciació?“, 2007, 76 pages, in Catalan language). In 2005, the journal Science (“Science” 309 (5731) 2005 july “25-125 questions”) posed “What are the biological bases of Consciousness?” how one of the 25 most important challenges that science has yet to solve. If the bases are not known, it is surprising that they are said to be “biological”. This is why they are not found, because how the document explains, they are not biological, but are symbolic-informational. Despite writing to the Editor Alan LESHNER (2006, 7 pages), he did not answer, so it is pending to translate to English and publish. The letter also addressed other issues that have generated the physics documents (in the sub-menu “Physics and Information”). The document deals with integrated aspects of psychology, mathematics, biology, genetics, physiology, psychomotricity, …, what had never been done before. Integrates “oriental” behaviors with “western” scientific methodologies. The concept of “Self-Application” and its importance in the sciences is exposed despite still being ignored. It is also explained for the first time why man can do mathematics, how foot reflexology works, the process of automomification of Tibetan monks, etc.
Under construction … will follow
Next sub-menu “Physics and Information“